Initial Interest    Stephen Fraser Smith was my mother's twin brother and thus my uncle.  In his memory I was named Stephen and in turn, my elder son's middle name is Fraser.  It is my earnest intention that Stephen will be remembered.  From an early age I was aware of his medals in my grandmother's bedroom.  When she died, my mother decided that they should be given to me.  I did become aware of my mother's disappointment that she never saw her brother's grave.  Towards the end of her life, my mother gave me many of the documents that I now have and which inspired me to undertake more research. One such document is Stephen's diary in which he recorded his experiences on a troopship whilst en route to South Africa. Also included were letters from Eraldo Manfroni, Stephen's medals and a copy of the Commonwealth War Graves register for Italy.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission     Together with my wife I visited the CWGC in Maidenhead.  The staff proved to be most welcoming and helpful.  They were able to confirm the details I already had regarding Stephen's grave, and suggested some lines of enquiry.  Over the years I have had the very great honour to visit a number of the cemeteries that have been created by, and are now maintained by the CWGC.  In addition to Staglieno in Genoa, I have also been to Anzio, Monte Casino, and Kanchanaburi (Thailand).  Each cemetery is beautifully designed, immaculately maintained and represents a small piece of Britain. They are truly the most apt resting places for our fallen.  The Commission's website at www.cwgc.org offers extensive information which can be easily searched. Our country owes the CWGC a continuing debt of gratitude.

RAF Service Record     In 1989 I began to seek Stephen's war-time service record.  With the authority of one of my uncles (as next of kin), I was able to request the record from the RAF Personnel Management Centre situated at Innsworth in Gloucester. (Note that RAF PMC has since moved from Innsworth). The Ministry of Defence now requires a different method of application for Statements of Service. Details can be found at:

www.raf.mod.uk/community/support/requestforinformationfromservicerecords.cfm

The single sheet I obtained lists all major events in Stephen's service from date of enlistment on 4th April 1940 until his death on 24th November 1943.  Significantly it provided details of his initial service and then his training in South Africa.  The existence of Stephen's diary about his experiences on a troop ship was now explained.

The National Archives     After several abortive enquiries around London, I eventually went to the National Archives (then called the Public Records Office) at Kew. I had phoned them in advance and thus was prepared for the short registration process. If you decide to visit, do first read their online guidance at:

www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

Information was available from original documents but more accessible were the stocks of microfilm and microfiche. Try to imagine how I felt when I identified the correct Operational Record Book which had once been classified SECRET. Imagine my emotions when I found the page which listed his final mission and the words "No News".

I returned to the National Archives in May 2012 to undertake more research. Many documents that were once on microfilm are now freely available to view on computer screens. I returned to The National Archives in March 2015 to find that the index of documenmts had been improved. Having once believed that Stephen and his crew had only undertaken four operations, it was now evident that they had participated in seven. I also discovered the date on which they arrived in Tunisia. Notworthy is the fact that the Operations Record Book (ORB) comprises two sections: One which provides details of each aircraft's task, the second which provides a Summary of Events.

When actual documents need to be inspected, it is necessary to first register. This is a straightforward process but do check the guidance in advance of your visit as certain documents will be required to prove identity. It is now perfectly acceptable to use a camera (with certain limitations) thus allowing detailed inspection after your visit. Note that there are strict copyright rules governing the documents. I am full of admiration for the staff of the National Archives and so glad that I live at a time when such information is readily available.

Wellington Aviation Museum     During 2012 and together with my wife, I visited the Wellington Aviation Museum situated in the village of Moreton-in-Marsh (near to the former RAF Station of the same name). This private museum was created and run by Mr Gerry Tyack MBE.  Not only did he create the museum but also the monument to RAF Moreton-in-Marsh which stands on the A44. A quick search of the internet returns many tributes to this dedicated man. For me Gerry proved to be a wonderful source of information and only too willing to help search his extensive collection of pilot logbooks. Sadly, Gerry died in January 2014 at the age of 90. Information currently available indicates that his family open the museum one day each week. Do check the museum's website first though:

www.wellingtonaviation.org.

Marco Soggetto    When I first researched Stephen's war, I had made contact with Marco who was also researching this mission. Whilst walking in the foot hills of the Alps he had come across the wreckage of an aircraft. His research enabled him to identify it as the remains of LN466 of 142 Squadron. I lost contact with Marco but regained it in March 2013 and discovered that he had published the results of his endeavours as a book "Operation Pointblank Bombardamenti Alleati Del Nord-Ovest". Regretably he was unable to find a publisher willing to publish in English. Marco kindly provided me with further information including the fact that he had been in contact with a survivor of the mission, Bill Turner. Bill is the subject of the book "Grandpa's War", a copy of which I hurriedly obtained from the USA. Not only does the book clarify some technical details but is a sympathetic account of Bill's thoughts and experiences.

Internet    Recent (2012/13) experience shows that increasing amounts of archive and analysis material is now available on the internet. Below there is a list of source material and credits, some of which are from the internet.

Sources of Information

A true bibliography has not been developed but this table provides the identity of documents and websites which enabled research. Readers will encounter text marked thus [4] which refers to the relevant entry in this table.

1

RAF Bomber Command Memorial

2

RAF Statement of Service (see above)

3

Convoys are listed at www.convoyweb.org.uk with further information at www.naval-history.net . Details of WS15 Convoy (Winston's Specials) are listed at www.naval-history.net/xAH-WSConvoys05-1942A.htm.

4

Image of SS Letitia www.clydesite.co.uk/clydebuilt/viewship.asp?id=886

5

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Llangibby_Castle

6

The National Archives (TNA): Public Record Office (PRO)

7

TNA:PRO Air 29/479 7 Personnel Reception Centre 1 Mar 42 to 31 Jul 45

8

TNA:PRO Air 54/173 Operations Record Books for Air Schools 44, 45, etc

9

TNA:PRO Air 54/183 Operations Record Books for Air School 75, etc

10

TNA:PRO Air 27/974/21 Operations Record Book 142 Squadron 1st to 31st November 1943

11

TNA:PRO Air 28/418 Operations Record Book RAF Kemble 1 Oct 40 to 28 Feb 46 (examined but not relevant)

12

TNA:PRO Air 29/471 Operations Record Book OADF/OADU RAF Kemble 1 Aug 41 to 31 Oct 44 etc. Also identifies five Overseas Despatch Units: No1 Portreath (Cornwall), No2 Trebelzue (Cornwall), No3 Hurn (Bournemouth), No4 Redhill (Surrey), No5 Aston Down. (examined but not relevant)

13

TNA:PRO Air 29/665 Operations Record Book 21 Operational Training Unit RAF Moreton-in-Marsh 1 Jan 41 to 31 Jan 47 (examined, but mostly not relevant)

14

TNA:PRO Air 29/962 Operations Record Book 5 Maintenance Unit RAF Kemble 1st Feb 39 to 31 Dec 45 (examined but not relevant)

15

TNA:PRO Air 50/481 Combat Reports 21 OTU RAF Moreton-in-Marsh (examined but not relevant)

16

TNA:PRO Various Records (identities not recorded)

17

Letter from Eraldo Manfroni dated 6 Oct 1945: in the possession of Stephen Pemberton

18

Commonwealth War Graves Commission. http://www.cwgc.org/

19

Britain's Wonderful Air Force. Odhams 1942. Edited by Air Commodore PFM Fellowes DSO

20

Doyle, Shawn S. Grandpa's War. General Store Publishing House, Ontario, Canada. 2009

21

Correspondence with Marco Soggetto who has researched this operation in great detail and is author of "Operation Pointblank Bombardamenti Alleati Del Nord-Ovest" (published only in Italian). His website is at http://www.varasc.it/marco_soggettoOP.htm

22

http://www.badgergate.demon.co.uk/LUSIGNANA/PDF_files/WWII/BrattoFlightCrew.pdf

23

http://www.rafcommands.com/forum/showthread.php?7313-24-Nov.-1943-Losses "CARR" and http://www.archeologidellaria.org/index.php?topic=1003.0;topicseen

24

Documents and information kindly provided by Elisabetta Manfroni, daughter of Eraldo Manfroni

25

Information kindly provided by Fausto Martinelli

26

http://www.genuki.org.uk/

27

Research, information and images kindly provided by Rachel Dare and Paul Bennet of Pocklington School

28

Image of HF694 appears in "Wellington Squadrons in Focus" by Paul Freer and Simon Parry. Authority to reproduce kindly given by Mark Postlethwaite of www.ww2images.com .

29

Hather, Les. They Also Served. Available on Amazon Kindle

30

Article written by Gary Shaw:  http://www.boxingnewsonline.net/on-this-day-middleweight-stafford-buzz-barton-the-fighting-pride-of-jamaica-died-with-the-raf-in-the-second-world-war/